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Investigating Test Bias (Overview)

"The Uniform Guidelines categorize a test as 'unfair' whenever '…members of one race, sex, or ethnic group characteristically obtain lower scores on a selection procedure than members of another group, and the differences in scores are not reflected in differences in a measure of job performance” (Section 8A). This section continues to explain that tests that meet this definition of unfairness "may unfairly deny opportunities to members of the group that obtains the lower scores.'

Since the framing of the Uniform Guidelines, most practitioners have used an earlier conceptualization of test fairness called the 'Cleary Rule.' This rule was developed by Cleary in 1968 where she stated that test bias can be evaluated by testing two hypotheses with respect to the linear relation between test scores and a criterion measure: (1) Equality of slopes, and then (2) equality of intercepts (given that slopes are equal). Cleary used the mathematics of the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to test these hypotheses."

(from Adverse Impact and Test Validation: A Practitioner's Handbook, 3rd Edition, by Dr. Dan Biddle)>>Download the Investigating Test Bias Overview PowerPoint Slides (PDF)
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